Analysis of Determinants of Tourist Satisfaction and Trust and Its Impact on Revisit Intention in Recreational Parks in DKI Jakarta


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Sofia Maulida, Farida Jasfar, M. Zilal Hamzah*

Citation: Sofia Maulida, Farida Jasfar, M. Zilal Hamzah, ”Analysis of Determinants of Tourist Satisfaction and Trust and Its Impact on Revisit Intention in Recreational Parks in DKI Jakarta.”. American Research Journal of Business and Management, vol 6, no. 1, 2020, pp. 1-6.

Copyright Sofia Maulida , et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the determinants of tourist satisfaction and trust and their impact on revisit intention in Recreational Parks in DKI Jakarta. This research was conducted in four recreational parks, namely Taman Impian Jaya Ancol, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Ragunan Wildlife Park and National Monument, with a sample of 498 respondents. The research method used is quantitative descriptive with data analysis techniques using SEM PLS with statistical tools Warppls 5.0 to test hypotheses. This study results that partially brand image variables, tourist perceptions and service quality affect tourist satisfaction. Furthermore, partially, brand image variables, tourist perceptions and service quality also affect tourist trust. Variable satisfaction and trust of tourists partially affect revisit intention. The magnitude of the effect of brand image variables, tourist perceptions, service quality together to tourist satisfaction by 36.4% and to tourist confidence by 46%. Tourist satisfaction and trust contributed 35.4% to revisit intention. This study provides theoretical implications in the form of a revisit intention model that all variables support the results of the study and managerial implications of this study for managers of recreational parks in order to integrate accessibility with accommodation and with admission to tourist attractions. This research is only limited to recreational parks in DKI Jakarta which are carried out in 4 recreational parks that have the largest tourists.

Keywords: brand image, tourist perception, service quality, tourist satisfaction, tourist trust and revisit intention.

Description:

Introduction

The growth of tourism in the world is experiencing rapid growth. Indonesia’s tourism growth is ranked 9th in theworld reaching 22% throughout 2017. This figure is above the average world tourism growth of 6.4% which reached1.32 billion people and growth in ASEAN by 7%, meanwhile China, America and India ranks the country with the highest tourism growth in the world. (www.wttc.org). DKI Jakarta has attractive and competitive tourism
resources compared to other countries or other provinces in Indonesia. As the capital city of Indonesia, DKI Jakarta is aprovince with a developing tourism sector. This development shows that DKI Jakarta is an attractive tourist destination for tourists, both foreign and domestic tourists. The development of tourism in DKI Jakarta is supported by easy accessibilityto and from Jakarta, research results (Dewi and Hapsari,2012) state that accessibility to tourist attractions is very influential on tourist visits. Foreign tourists (tourists) and thearchipelago (wisnus) come through land transportation, sea transportation and air transportation entrances namely through Soekarno Hatta Airport, Tanjung Priok Port, train stations and
bus terminals. Accessibility in the city is quite diverse. DKI Jakarta has various types of public transportation such as citytransportation, taxi, city bus, and transjakarta bus (busway).


The number of tourist arrivals from 2013-2017 increased by an average of 5.6%. This indicates that tourism in DKI Jakarta is developing along with better supporting infrastructure such as better mass transportation, including Transjakarta buses. In the research of Isnaini and Abdillah (2018) destination brand image has a significant influence on the variable satisfaction of millennial generation tourists with a positive image. Awaludin and Setiawan’s research (2012) states that trust has a significant and positive influence on customer loyalty. Previous studies have examined only two to three variables such as Bintarti and Kurniawan (2017) examining tourist satisfaction at Muara Bening and Allameh, et al (2015) with destination image, perceived quality, perceived value and satisfaction variables. Based on this, this study aims to determine the effect of recreational park imagery on tourist satisfaction of recreational parks in DKI Jakarta, the effect of recreational park imagery on tourist trust in recreational parks in DKI Jakarta, the effect of tourist p erceptions on tourist satisfaction of recreation parks in DKI Jakarta, influence of tourist perception on the trust of tourists to the Recreation Park in DKI Jakarta, the effect of service quality on the satisfaction of tourists to the Recreation Park in DKI Jakarta, the effect of service quality on the trust of tourists to the Recreation Park in DKI Jakarta, the effect of tourist satisfaction on the revisit intention of tourists of the Recreation Park in DKI Jakarta, and the influence of tourist trust towards the revisit intention of tourists of the Recreation Park in DKI Jakarta.

Literature References

Alma (2005) states that images are defined as impressions obtained in accordance with one’s knowledge and experience  of something. According to Iman and Suwandi (2010) there are  several  important  things  related  to  the  image,  namely the impression of objects in the image, the image process is formed, and reliable sources. Objects are individuals and / or entities which consist of a group of people. The formation of images in the information process to enable the occurrence of images on objects due to the receipt of information every time. Millennial  generation  tourist  satisfaction  has  a  significant contribution in mediating the influence between destination brand  image  on  revisiting  interest  (Isnaini  and  Abdillah, 2018). Cognitive imagery impacts tourist intentions to visit again, but affective imagery is ineffective in terms of intention to revisit (Artuger and Cetinsoz, 2017).Rangkuti  (2014)  states  that  perception  is  a  meaningful stimulus received through its senses into a meaning through a process in which people choose, and organize it. But the meaning of the process of perception can be influenced by one’s  past  experience.  The  perception  of  tourists  to  tourist  facilities is quite good (Wahyuningsih, 2018). Zeithaml, et al (1996) define service quality as a form of attitude, related but not the same as satisfaction, as a result of the comparison between  expectations  and  performance.  The  main  factors that  affect  service  quality  are  expected  services  (expected service)  and  services  received  (perceived  service).  Service quality is considered good and satisfying if the service desired by consumers is in accordance with the services received, otherwise the service is of poor quality or cannot be said to be good if the desired service is not in accordance with the services  received.  The  Service  Quality  Dimension  is  very important for increased customer satisfaction (Naik, et al., 2010). Service quality is a strong determinant of company image  and  customer  loyalty  (Hussein  and  Hapsari,  2015). Customer satisfaction plays the role of mediator in the effect of service quality on service loyalty (Mosahab, et al., 2010).Kotler (2016) mentions customer satisfaction is the result of a comparison between the assessment of the performance/end product in relation to customer expectations of the level of one’s feelings. Sharma (2017) satisfaction is a significant variable that mediates the relationship between service quality and  customer  loyalty.  Irawan  (2013)  customer  satisfaction is influenced by factors, namely: 1). Product quality, said to be satisfied if the product quality is good after the customer buys and uses the product. 2). Prices, low prices for sensitive customers, are a source of satisfaction because they will get a high value of money. 3). Service Quality, Service depends on three things, namely the system, technology, and people. Based on this concept, there are five dimensions of service quality,  namely  reliability,  responsiveness,  assurance, empathy, and tangibility. 4). Emotional Factor, a good image raises customer satisfaction. Emotional values can also arise from  self-confidence,  pride,  self-confidence,  symbols  of success, which are the basis of satisfaction. 5). Ease, in getting products or customer service is relatively easy, convenient and efficient will be more satisfied.



Soegoto  (2013)  states  that  trust  is  related  to  emotional bonding, which is the ability possessed by someone to believe in a company or brand so that a function can work, so that repurchase interest and loyalty are positively related to trust. Trust (trust) is a feeling to be able to trust other parties for all the promises that have been given (Sam and Tahir, 2010). Customer experience and trust have positive and significant re-purchase intention. Customer satisfaction is able to mediate positively and significantly the effect of customer experience on repurchase intentions (Yolandari and Kusumadewi, 2018). Brand service quality has a significant influence on brand trust through brand satisfaction. In other words, this means that consumers will not trust the service quality of a brand unless they are first satisfied with the service quality of the brand (Chinomona, et al., 2013). Baker and Crompton (2013) behavioral intention to revisit is the intention of tourists to re-visit the place within a year and the intention to frequently come to that destination. Mat Som et al. (2012) destination image and recreational relaxation are the most important attributes of travel destinations and motives for revisiting Sabah and recommending Sabah as a tourist destination. External satisfaction is influenced by the quality of experience and image of tourism sites. The intention to re-visit is influenced by experience satisfaction (Bintarti and Kurniawan, 2017). Service quality, brand image, and trust are very strong and mediators of customer satisfaction in this relationship have an impact on customer loyalty (Ashraf, et al., 2018).

Methodology

This research is a survey research. The population of this research is all tourists to the leading tourism objects in DKI Jakarta,  namely  Taman  Impian  Jaya  Ancol,  Taman  Mini Indonesia Indah and Ragunan Wildlife Park. The number of samples in this study amounted to 498 tourists from the four recreational park objects according to the maximum size of the sample size according to Roscoe. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used to analyze data with Warppls 5.0 statistical software in the model and hypothesis assessment.Result and DiscussionThe results of testing the validity of the question declared valid because the question item has a combined loading factor value above 0.5. Testing the value of composite reliability shows all variables have a value> 0.70 as well as the value of croanbach alpha for all variables showing a value of> 0.70. So it can be concluded that all variables are reliable. Based on the results of the general result output, it can be seen that the model has a good fit, where the P-value for Average Path Coefficient (APC) and Average R-squared (ARS) is p <0.01. Likewise with the resulting Average Variance Inflation Factor (AVIF) which is 1,611 which means <5. This shows that there is  no  multicollinearity  problem  between  the  independent (exogenous) variables. The number of iterations for this model is done 8 times. The following test results with WarpPLS 5.0:After the above test, the partial hypothesis test is continued as shown in the table below:The results showed the Brand Image, Perceived Service Quality  Tourists,  significant  partial  effect  on  Tourist Satisfaction.  In  addition,  Brand  Image, Tourist  Perception, Service  Quality,  have  a  significant  effect  on Tourist Trust. Tourist  Satisfaction  and  Trust  have  a  significant  effect  on Revisit Intention. In  table  3  above  it  can  be  seen  that  the  magnitude  of the contribution of the influence of brand image variables, tourist perceptions, service quality simultaneously to tourist satisfaction is 36.4%. The magnitude of the contribution of the influence of brand image variables, tourist perceptions, service quality together on tourist trust by 46%. The magnitude of the contribution of the influence of brand image variables, tourist perceptions, service quality and intervening variables (satisfaction and trust) simultaneously on revisit intention by 35.4%.






Conclusion

Based on the results of research and analysis conducted in  the  previous  chapter,  the  following  general  conclusions are  obtained,  revisit  intention  is  influenced  positively  and significantly  by  brand  image,  tourist  perceptions,  service quality through tourist satisfaction and trust in recreational parks in DKI Jakarta. The main finding of this study is directly that the revisit intention of tourists is most strongly influenced by the variable tourist confidence in recreational parks. Tourist trust is influenced by the quality of recreational park services. The theoretical implications of this study are revisit intention models  that  all  exogenous  variables  affect  the  endogenous variables. Managerial  implications  of  this  study  for  managers  of recreational parks to pay attention to variables of brand image, tourist perceptions, service quality, trust and tourist satisfaction so  that  tourists  can  revisit  the  recreation  park  repeatedly. Managerial  implications  can  further  integrate  accessibility with accommodation and with admission to tourist attractions, for example with a bus pass ticket with tourist ticket admission and hotel vouchers. his research is only limited to recreational parks in DKI Jakarta which are carried out in 4 recreational parks that have the largest tourists, so suggestions for further research can examine accessibility, amenities, attractions and innovations in attractions and facilities / vehicles. The next suggestion respondents in the study could come from foreign tourists to provide more value.

RECOMMENDATION

1. Based on this research, here are some important things that can be put forward for implementation of business ethics, entrepreneurship motivation and business performance in perspective Islamic:
  1. The need for socialization related to how to maintain business ethics that are  not detrimental and take the property of others in private.
  2.  Conducting  business  transactions  based  on  the  rules taught by Islam, so that it can implement Maqasid Sharia.
  3. The government, scholars, intellectuals and community leaders must play an active role in realizing the importance of  religious  observance  in  all  matters,  including  business activities so that understanding of fair trade and moral trade can be applied, which aims to benefit the community.
  4. Business practices must be guided properly by economic rules that are rational based on religious values. Islam strongly supports business and competition, but remains assertive in what  is  considered  haram.  Islam  provides  guidelines  and limits on how an entrepreneur runs his business activities.




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