Faraday’s Iron Ring Experiment (1831) Explained with Gill’s Electronic Theory of Magnetism (1964)

Avtar Singh Gill*

Received Date: 14-May-2017 Accepted Date: 28-Jun-2017 Published Date: 05-July-2017

Citation: “Faraday’s Iron Ring Experiment (1831) Explained with Gill’s Electronic Theory of Magnetism (1964)”. American Research Journal of Physics; V2, I1; pp: 1-17

Copyright This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism (1964) was put forward by the author to explain a change in configuration of the atoms which then start to behave like magnets. The author does not agree with the pre-existing dipole theory of Maxwell (1873).

By applying Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism (1964) to Faraday’s (1831) iron ring experiment, the unexpected result obtained by Michael Faraday in 1831will be explained.

Using Coulomb’s law, dot-product calculations and equations have been developed by the author versus the cross-product Lorentz equations (1893). 

Magnetism and the Tesla unit will be addressed and it will be shown with the help of Coulomb’s law that if we have  non-moving inner electrons at the north magnetic pole and have at a distance of one meter the same number of exposed protons as the south magnetic pole, then we will experience a magnetic force of one Tesla between the two magnetic poles.

The issue of asymmetry between magnetic force and electrical force pointed out by A. Einstein in 1905 and Richard Feynman in 1943 is resolved by applying Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism (1964) instead of Maxwell’s dipole theory of magnetism (1873).

Introduction: This article has been written to explain the results obtained by Michael Faraday in his 1831 iron ring experiment with the application of Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism (1964). The ability to do the same also lends support to Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism. It will be shown with line diagrams and a simple experiment that the magnetic force is a combination of positive and negative forces from the protons and electrons of a re-configured magnetized atom. The author will go on to derive dot product calculations and equations after having failed to reconcile with the cross-product Lorentz formula of 1893. The derived equations are applied to define and calculate a Tesla unit. Maxwell’s dipole theory of magnetism (1873) causes the asymmetry issue and it will be shown that Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism resolves the asymmetry issue. 

Conclusion: Application of Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism (1964) shows how a centrifugal force is created and manifests and travels on the surface from the northpole to the south pole of a magnet during magnetization and in the opposite direction during demagnetization and manifests only at the ends of a magnet otherwise. 

It will be shown that both during magnetism and electricity, the interaction is between positive and negative forces of an atom. During electrical current we have the free valence electrons flowing in the conducting coil. During magnetism, the atom undergoes a change in configuration between its electrons and protons. Dot product equations suffice. 

Method: Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism (1964) will be summarized followed by a simple experiment to show that the fundamental magnetic force is a combination of proton based positive and electron based negative forces. Next, a simple thought experiment involving Faraday’s iron ring experiment (1831) to show how opposite induction works. Next will be the actual Faraday’s iron ring experiment (1831) and how the application of Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism (1964) helps in explaining the magnetic induction followed by the electrical induction. This will be followed by dot product calculations developed by the author instead of the cross-product equations of Lorentz (1893). Finally, the asymmetry issue will be addressed and resolved if you apply Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism instead of Maxwell’s dipole dependant theory. 



This is based on the structure of the atom and explains how the positively charged protons and the negatively charged electrons are responsible for both magnetism and electrical forces.

In the diagrams that follow in this article, we are using a simplified version of the structure of an atom with a large black proton and small red electrons. 


Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism (1964) shows the neutral iron atoms in Fig 1a are magnetized in Figure 1b and CD has become the negative magnetic pole or north pole with a torqued non-moving charge – 𝒏𝒆 of the magnet and AB has become the positive magnetic pole or the south pole of the magnet with an oppositely torqued non-moving charge +𝒏𝒆 where 𝒏 is the number of exposed inner electrons at one end and equals the number of exposed protons at the other end. The neutral atoms in Fig 1a have become magnetized atoms in Fig 1b by undergoing a change in configuration and each atom also has developed an opposing torque between its own electrons and protons to give the magnetized atoms a corkscrew effect. 


Maxwell`s Theory of Electro-Magnetism (1873) as shown in Figure 1c above describes ferromagnetic metals consisting of tiny dipole magnets (every north pole is yoked to a south pole) which straighten out during magnetization into north to south direction and in a non-magnetic state they are a jumbled lattice which does not manifest any free North-pole and South-pole which does happen when the same is magnetized as explained in the figure to the right. 

Figure 1c leaves us with the erroneous notion that the magnetic force is a single fundamental force of magnetism. However, the line diagrams presented in Figure 1b show that the magnetic force comprises of two forces emanating from the proton dependant south magnetic pole and the electron dependant north magnetic pole of reconfigured magnetized atoms.


A physicist showed me the following experiment in 1965. On a wooden table, spread some coarse iron filings and in the middle of the iron filings, place a magnet. 



In Fig 2b, a wooden non-magnetic obstruction Z is placed on one side on the iron filings. The iron filings crumple on both sides of Z in zones X and Y. If the magnetic force was a single force, the iron filings should have crumpled in Zone X or Zone Y only. 

Thus, the magnetic force is combination of the positive and negative forces from the two poles of a magnet seen both diagrammatically and experimentally. 



Faraday’s experiment to try to induce an electric current from a magnetic field has a battery on the left, an iron ring in the centre and a galvanometer on the right. The left coil X is around the iron ring from point A to point B and it is connected to a battery. The right coil Y is around the iron ring from point C to point D and is connected to a galvanometer and no battery is connected to coil Y. In the iron ring, we have arranged a row of neutral atoms each with a central proton mass (large black dot) surrounded by electrons (small red dots).

Faraday saw the galvanometer in circuit Y deflect at the moment he closed the switch in circuit X and an opposite galvanometer deflection was seen when the battery was switched off. 

A thought experiment to explain the opposite induction in coil Y

The iron ring has been made oblong as it will help with the calculations later, although nothing changes.