The Dynamics of Dermatitis Presentation Across the Ages in a Tropical Dermatology Practice in Nigeria 111
Citation: The Dynamics of Dermatitis Presentation Across the Ages in a Tropical Dermatology Practice in Nigeria. American Research Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 2017; 3(1): 1-9.
Copyright This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Dermatitis as an inflammatory skin disorder is characterized by erythema and scaling of the cutaneous surface of the body. The pattern of occurrence differs across the ages and varies in different parts of the body.
The records of all patients with a diagnosis of dermatitis presenting to the dermatologic clinic of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua Edo State Nigeria over a ten years period between April 2005 and April 2015 were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively and subjected to simple statistical analysis.
One thousand six hundred and twenty patients (1620) with various types of dermatitis were seen during this period representing 22% of all dermatologic presentations. Among the different types of dermatitis encountered, atopic dermatitis accounted for the highest prevalence at 28.1% occurring equally in the young and the old, followed by contact dermatitis occurring in 18.2% of the patients (mainly in young adults). Those with the lowest prevalence were stasis dermatitis (2.4%) and asteatotic eczema (3.6%) both occurring majorly in the elderly. Seborrhoiec dermatitis (8%) and onchodermatitis (5%) were the major infective dermatitis found.
The spread of dermatitis in a tropical dermatology practice from this study varies greatly among different age groups and several factors such as inherent immunity and various environmental conditions from activities of daily living are responsible for these and the knowledge of this variation may help to exclude other lesions such as psoriasis and drug eruptions which can present with a similar clinical picture.
Keywords: Dermatitis; Presentation; Ages; Nigeria.
Dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disorder presenting with erythema and scaling of the cutaneous surface of the body. It may be primary or secondary to a variety of underlying medical conditions or medications1 . It may also be acute or chronic depending on the duration before presentation. There are various ways in which dermatitis presentations may be classified ranging from the part or extent of the body affected, etiologic agent, and duration before presentation.
The occurrence of dermatitis in different parts of the body varies across the ages and from one part of the world to the other. While some variants such as atopic dermatitis appear commoner in the young2 , others like exfoliative and asteatotic dermatitis appears commoner with advancing ages1 . The underlying mechanism of the different types of dermatitis appears to be linked to the activity of the immune system3 at different stages of life, however, type 1 and 3 immunologic mechanisms appears to be more prominent in their manifestation3 . There are usually no sex differences except for regional affectation in areas such as the nipples or genitalia4 .
This study aims to looks at the dynamics of such presentation across the ages in a tropical dermatologic practice in Nigeria and compare the findings to that from other places where the prevalence of dermatitis had been previously documented.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The records of all patients with a diagnosis of dermatitis who presented to the dermatologic clinic of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital Irrua Edo State Nigeria over a ten years period (April 2005- April 2015) were analysed. Data was obtained from the records. This included socio-demographic and relevant clinical data. These were subjected to simple statistical analysis using Epi-info 2007. Institutional consideration was granted by the Ethical committee of the hospital.
A total of 7350 dermatologic patients were seen during the ten year period. One thousand six hundred and twenty (1620) of these presented with various types of dermatitis representing 22% of all dermatologic presentations.
See table beneath for distribution