Service Quality and Engagement at Some Private Universities


Heni Mularsih*

Citation: Service Quality and Engagement at Some Private Universities. American Research Journal of Business and Management. 2018; 4(1): 1-12.

Copyright This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract:

The research conducted in this paper is a previous follow-up study. This study was conducted on 1000 female students at 10 universities in the Kopertis III Region. The purpose of this study was to examine the nomological validity of service quality, namely by using engagement. These two variables are measured by a Likert scale and their validity and reliability are tested. Nomologic validity alone is tested by correlation and regression analysis. From the results of the analysis and testing, it was found that the nomologic validity was tested empirically.

Keywords: quality services, engagement, nomologic


Description:

INTRODUCTION

This research is a continuation of previous research. As presented in the initial research proposal, the first research has been completed and the result is an instrument of higher education service quality that has been tested for validity and reliability within the scope of Kopertis Region III. The development of the instrument was based on the results of PZB research (Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry, 1985, 1988, 1991, 1994) using information related to its development, as reported in the first study.

Further research is the implementation or use of these instruments within the scope of Kopertis Region III. It was intended that the college obtain information about the quality of its services so that it can be known the weaknesses and advantages of each university in terms of the dimensions of the quality of service that has been provided to students. On that basis, universities will be able to find out what dimensions are classified as good so that they need to be maintained and / or improved. Universities can also know the weaknesses in the dimensions of the quality of services that have been provided. Thus, universities can identify the causes and formulate improvement plans that need to be done to improve the quality of their services.

In addition, testing for nomologic validity was added to this follow-up study. This is intended to examine the link between the quality of higher education services and other variables that are different, namely engagement. From the results of the study it can be seen that service quality is positively related to engagement. Barkhuizen, Magwere and Schutte (2014), for example, find that the dimensions of engagement work are positively related to the dimensions of service quality. Engagement is a positive predictor of service quality (Freeney & Fellenz, 2013; Raditha, Clemes & Dean, 2017).

The purpose of this study was to examine the nomological validity of service quality by using engagement.

THEORETICAL BASIS

Quality of Service. First year research (2017), dimensions as the basis for instrument development refer to ten dimensions according to PZB (in Wilson & Ronald, 2016). The explanation of the ten dimensions is presented below. One, realibility is the ability to provide services to customers consistently, accurately and professionally. Two, responsiveness is the desire to provide services with full readiness according to customer needs. Three, competence is knowledge and skill so that it can provide services according to customer needs. Fourth, access is the closeness and convenience to be contacted regarding the location of services that are easy to reach, easy to contact communication channels, and the waiting time is not too long. Five, courtesy is the ability to provide service in a polite, respectful, caring and friendly manner. Six, communication is the ability to provide services to customers related to the delivery of information in a language that is easy to understand, and willing to listen to complaints, and suggestions. Seven, credibility is the ability to provide services honestly and trustworthy, which involves the name of the credit reputation, personal contact, and in terms of interacting. Eight, security is the ability to serve safely to customers, free from risk, danger, risk or doubt. Nine, understanding is an effort to provide services by understanding customer needs. Ten, tangible is a service in the form of physical appearance that can be used or felt by the customer.

Based on the test of the ten dimensions of service quality above, obtained the results of the development of instruments from ten dimensions to 4 dimensions. The results of this year research show, in the following table.

From Table 2.1 it can be seen that thirteen valid and reliable statements come from ten dimensions developed by PZB (1985). The dimensions of competence are manifested in statements 1 and 2. From the results of the analysis carried out, the two statements are manifestations of the same dimension. Thus, the resulting dimension is still given the term (name) Competency.

The communication dimension is manifested in 3 and 4. From the results of the analysis, the two statements are manifestations of the same dimension. Thus, the resulting dimensions are still given the term (name) Communication.

From the results of this study it is known that 5 to 6 are manifestations of the same dimension, namely Dimension 3. However, based on the references used in this study, 5 and 6 are manifestations of the credibility dimension. Meanwhile, 7 and 8 are manifestations of the Security dimension. With another statement, Dimension 3 produced in this study is a combination of the dimensions of Credibility and Security (PZB, 1985). On that basis, the name Dimension 3 produced in this study is the dimension of Belief, namely the credibility of institutions (colleges and study programs) and the security of lectures.

Physical facilities dimensions are manifested from 9 to 12 and 13. From the results of the analysis carried out, the five statements are manifestations of the same dimension. Thus, the resulting dimensions are still given the term (name) dimension of Communication.

Engagement. Initially, engagement was first developed in psychological research. In subsequent developments, engagement was adopted and developed in the field of organizational behavior and consumer behavior. In the context of consumer behavior, many empirical studies show that engagement plays a major role in explaining consumer behavior. Consumer engagement is a variable that has been recently believed to increase loyalty (Bowden, 2009; Brodie, Hollebeek, Jurić, & Allić, 2011; Sarkar & Sreejesh, 2014), increasing sales (Voyles, 2007), and profitability (Harter, Schmidt, & Hayes, 2002; Wellins, 2005; Voyles, 2007).

As it is often the case in the behavioral sciences, the concept or definition of the engagement until now still not definitive, they vary based on several views. The definition and size of engagement in the work context proposed by Schaufeli, Salanova, Gonzáles-Romá and Bakker (2002) are often used as references by researchers in consumer and organizational behavior (see also Flynn, 2012).The definition of consumer engagement adapted in this study is “. , , a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. “(Schaufeli, Salanova, Gonzáles-Romá and Bakker, 2002: 74) Related to that, vigor is characterized by energy and mental resilience with a high level, the desire to invest in work and even persistence in the face of difficulties., Dedication is characterized by feelings of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and enthralled in the work, with which the perceived time passes quickly and has difficulty by releasing itself from work.

RESEARCH METHODS

Time and Place of Research This research was conducted for 1 year, namely in 2018. The place of research was conducted at private universities in Kopertis Region III.

Population and Sample. The population of this study is all private university students who are included in Kopertis Region III. From the population, a sample of 10 tertiary random techniques was chosen, each of which consisted of 100 students so that the total sample was 1000 students. One hundred students from each college were randomly selected as many as 20 students from each year.

Instrument. There are two variables in this study so that there are two instruments needed. Instruments for measuring service quality variables have been produced in previous studies with proven validity and reliability. Engagement variables are developed based on their conceptual definition and by adopting instruments that have been developed by previous researchers.

Both instruments use the Likert type with five response options. The score moves from 1 to 7. Before the engagement instrument is used, the instrument is administered to 10 students to determine the possibility of improving the editor of each statement. On that basis, the initial instrument was developed to test the reliability and validity of the broader subject. The initial instrument is presented in the attachment.

Validity and Reliability. The validity of engagement instruments and service quality were analyzed by item-total correlations corrected as presented in Tables 4.1 and 4.2, using a validity coefficient of at least 0.20 (Cronbach, 1990). Engagement reliability and service quality were analyzed with Cronbach’s alpha as presented in Table 4.1 and 4.2, using a reliability coefficient of at least 0.70 (Rush & Golombok, 1989).

From Table 4.1 it can be seen that 11 statement items regarding engagement are valid, as the validity coefficient in the CITC column is greater or equal to 0.200. The engagement consists of Agency (AGE), Behavior (PL), and Emotion (EMO) dimensions. The reliability coefficient (0.798) is greater than 0.700 so it is reliable.

Furthermore, from Table 4.2 it can be seen that 10 statement items regarding service quality are classified as valid, as well as the validity coefficient in the CITC column which is greater or equal to 0.200. Quality services consist of Competency (COMP), Communication (COM), Confidence (SURE), and Physical dimensions. The reliability coefficient (0.696) is smaller than 0.700 but the difference may be small so that it can still be assumed to be reliable, especially if one decimal is used.

From the results of the validity and reliability analysis above, it can be concluded that the data obtained is feasible to be used to answer the formulation of the research problem.

Data analysis. In accordance with the purpose of this study, the data analysis used was analysis of variance to compare the mean dimensions of service quality between universities and simple regression analysis to test the nomologic validity of service quality. The analysis was carried out with the help of SPSS 21 software.

RESULTS AND EXTENSION OF RESEARCH

In Table 5.1.b it can be seen that 432 respondents have economic disciplines and the remaining 568 people have discipline not economics.

In Table 5.1.c the respondent’s semester is presented. Respondents are in the first semester as many as 470 people, 403 people are in the second semester, and 127 people are in the third semester.

In Table 5.1.c the respondent’s semester is presented. Respondents are in the first semester as many as 470 people, 403 people are in the second semester, and 127 people are in the third semester.

The behavioral dimension consists of five statements. The average moves from 3.28 for statements five to 3.73 for statements two and four. The variability of the score moves from 0.633 in the statement one to 0.712 for statement two. Descriptive statistics of emotional items are presented in Table 5.2.c. The emotional dimension of the engagement variable consists of four statement items. The average moves from 3.43 for statements two to 3.57 for statements three and four. The variability of the score moves from 0.666 for one statement to 0.784 for statement four.