Job Related Stress on Employees Performance: A Comparative Study of Public Bank and Private Bank


Dr. Rambabu Lavuri*

Citation: Job Related Stress on Employees Performance: A Comparative Study of Public Bank and Private Bank American Research Journal of Business and Management. 2018; 4(1): 1-13.

Copyright This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract:

Background: In the competitive world every employees having stress towards their respective jobs, in the banking industries employees facing job related stress to aching their task. This paper analysed that impact of job related stress on employees job performance in selected public bank and private bank in Hyderabad city.

Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the causes and consequences of job stress, impact of coping strategies, job satisfaction and job performance of employees in selected public bank and private bank.

Method: The study reported responses of 148 employees from public bank and private bank of Hyderabad. The Census method was adopted in the collection of data from individual employees responses and tested by chisquare, correlation and independent t - sample test used with help of SPSS 20.0 Version.

Findings: The results indicated that there was a strong association of job related stress on employees performance, and there is a significance differences of these factors in selected public bank and private bank.

Conclusion: According through employees opinions, coping strategies like individual and organisational strategies are the best suitable solution to overcome the job stress in employees performance.

Keywords: Banking industry, Employees, Stress coping strategies, Job stress, Job satisfaction, Job performances


Description:

INTRODUCTION

Stress is a Common phenomenon in any kind of job and employees have to face it in almost every business task. Stress has been defined in different ways from the past years. According to Robbins and Sanghi (2006)[12] “A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraints, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.” stress is an increasing problem in organizations and often cause adverse effects on performance. According to Kahn and Quinn (1970)[7] “stress is the outcome of facet of the assigned work role that caused harmful effect for individual. Occupational stress is considered as harmful factor of the work environment.” It also has unpleasant effects on health of an individual as David (1998)[3] contributed “it can also be labelled as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the workers. Job stress can lead to poor health and even injury.” According to ILO (1986)[4]“It is recognized world-wide as a major challenge to individual mental and physical health, and organizational health.” Although stress includes both good and bad aspects but it is not necessarily bad. Rubina et at., (2008) [13] contributed the same “Stress is not always negative or harmful and indeed, the absence of stress is death.” But it still has destructive impact on employee performance.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

An individual in his or her job in bank face stress as Jamshed et al.,(2011)[5] suggested that “The workplace is potentially an important source of stress for bankers because of the amount of time they spent in their respective banks.” And that stress often decrease their performance. “Therefore occupation of individuals could be a major source of stress in the given circumstances. When individuals face stress due to various conditions of their occupation and fail to cope with stress, it results into burnout,” (IBDM).Basically in banking sector lack of administrative support from boss(manager), work overload & time pressure, riskiness of job, poor relationship with customers & coworkers, and work family balance cause stress which in turns decrease employee performance. The same was contributed by Materson (1980)[9] “Causes of stress are many like work load, cuts in staff, change at work, long work hours, shift work, lack of supervision, inadequate training, inappropriate working conditions, too heavy responsibilities and poor relations with colleagues.”

In banking sector particularly higher management doesn’t realize the impact of stress on employee performance which ultimately results in critical managerial dilemmas as Subha and shakeel (2009)[14] described “Higher level of stress existed with no managerial concern for solution consequently lowering the employee performance, staking organizational reputation and loss of skilled employees, these situations call for immediate concern from organization management for employing effective stress management practices to increase employee satisfaction and overall employee performance.” Work overload & time pressure to complete too much work in short span of time is big source of stress which decrease the performance of employees as Babak et al.,(2010) [2] studied “With excessive pressures, the job demands cannot be met, relaxation turns to exhaustion and a sense of satisfaction replaces with the feelings of stress, motivation sheds away and the workers start losing interest in the work and hence performance chart shows a negative trend.” 

The performance of individuals also decreased when stress is caused by inability of individual to maintain a reasonable balance between family life and work life as he/she has to spend a lot of time in his/her working. McCubbin & Figley (1983)[10] suggested that “Job related stress can be mostly immobilizing because of its possible threats to family functioning and individual performance. Job related stress can create a difference between demands on families and the ability of families to provide material security for them.” And that inability to maintain a reasonable balance between family life and work life results in work to family conflict which in turn cause stress and ultimately decreases the employee performance. According to Anderson ( 2002)[1] “work to family conflicts is also a predecessor which creates stress in employees of an organization.”In banks the poor relationship among employees often cause stress and have adverse effects on the performance of employees. Lack of social support from colleagues and poor interpersonal relationships can cause stress especially among employees with a high social need. Margot Shields( 2006)[8] suggested. “different sources of work stress do not occur in isolation but indeed interact with one another.” Stress caused by degree of involvement in decision making is a big source of decrease in performance of individual as Meneze (2005)[11] described “Misfit with organization, no part in decision making, were reported main causes of stress as well no control over work environment, personality traits, lack of relaxation along with ambiguous rules affect employees performance.” The nature of job in banking sector is too much risky. There is operational risk involved in transactions which always put pressure on employees to avoid wrong entries. The employees in return feel job insecurity which cause great stress on them. jungwee park (2007)[6] contributed “Physical exertion and job insecurity can also cause stress.” so job insecurity is also a major cause of stress on the job that negatively affect the performance of employees in the banking sector.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The specific objectives of this study have been framed as follows

• To evaluate the causes and consequences of job related stress in public and private banks.

• To examine the job stress and job satisfaction among the employees of public and private banks.

• To study the influence of stress coping strategies (individual and organizational) on the employees of public and private banks

HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY

Following hypothesis have been framed as follows

HO1: There is no a significant association between job stress and personal demographic factors.

HO2: There is no a significant association between job stress coping strategies and personal demographic factors.

HO3: There is no a significant association between job stress and job performance.

HO4: There is no a significant association between job stress coping strategies and job performance.

HO5: There is no a significant association between job Satisfaction and job performance

HO6: There is no significant difference of the job stress, job stress strategies, job performance and job satisfaction in the public and private banks.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The main purpose the study is to examine the association between the job stress, coping strategies, job satisfaction and job performance among the respected bank employees of public and private bank in the Hyderabad city. Therefore, the current study confines itself to the job stress, coping strategies, job satisfaction and job performance of the selected employees of public bank and private bank.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK MODEL


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The research method is a strategy of investigation, which means moving from the underlying assumption to research design and data collection (Myers,1999). In the present research study also used these ways to prove the association of respected variables like Job Stress, coping strategies, job satisfaction and job performance of bank employees in selected public and private bank in the Hyderabad city, Telangana state. The current research paper adopts an analytical research design. It is based on study of Canara bank from public bank and Axix bank from private bank in the Hyderabad city.

The research targeted employees of public and private bank of selected banks in Hyderabad city using Purposive sampling. Total 148 questionnaire were distribute to the selected respondents from public bank (74 respondents) and private bank (74 respondents) under the Census method. Each question measured different perceptions regarding variables of job stress dimensions. Te respondents were asked to rate their responses towards four dimensions and respected items on a 5-point scale ranging from Strongly Disagree (1), Disagree (2), Neutral (3), Agree (4), and Strongly Agree (5). The data were examined using statistical package for social science (SPSS 20.0 version) in the analysis process.

STATISTICAL TOOLS

The hypothesis of the study have been examined using suitable tools, like

Chi-Square: Chi-square test is a statistical tool used to examine differences between nominal or categorical variables. It used in two similar but district circumstances:

- to estimate how closely an observed distribution matches an expected distribution (Goodness -of- fit test)

- To determine whether two random variables are independent

Correlation: It is a statistically measure that indicates the extent to which two are more variables fluctuate together.

Independent t-Sample: The independent sample t-test (or independent t-test) assesses the means between two unrelated groups on the same continuous, dependent variables.

ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

Reliability and Validity of Measurement

Measures of construct reliability used are cronbach’s alpha. Cronbach’s alpha tests internal consistency for all dimensions extracted from exploratory analysis , and the minimum acceptable score is above 0.70 (Gerbing & Anderson,1988).

 

From the Table 1, it shown that the questionnaire is tested for its reliability and presented the results here under. The questionnaire developed is pretested and validated through face validity as it was sent to a carefully selected sample of experts and it also has a sufficiently good reliability score. The result given the value of the as 0.737. It indicates that, the data has a high reliability and validity.

Summary Item Statistics

It is evident that the summary of the means, variances, covariance and inter-item correlations are presented in the following table.

It is obvious the minimum and maximum mean, Range, and variance values for item means, item variances are positive. Maximum mean is witnessed for Item means is 4.818. Maximum variance is 2.791, maximum inter item covariance is witnessed is 2.746 and maximum inter-item covariance is found to be 1.000.

The personal profile of the respected respondents in terms of demographic particulars like such as age, gender, marital status, family type, Education, Designation, Monthly income (in rupees), Working hours, Working Experience, No. of Transfers from the joining and Type of Bank.

Demographic Profile of the Respondents


Age: With regards to the age distribution of the respondents ,it was found that majority of them belonged to the age group of 31-40 years 58.8%, those belonging 21-30 years of the age accounted for 31.1%, while those in the age group of 41-50 years accounted for 6.1%, and 51-60 years accounted for 4.1% of the total respondents.

Gender: A close look at the table 3 reveals that the male respondents accounted for a higher percentage 79.1%, when compare female respondents 20.9.

Marital Status: With respect to marital status, while 58.8% of the employees from the selected banks were married, followed with 41.2% of employees were unmarried.

Family Type: From the table 3, majority i.e. 53.7% of the employees from the joint family and 45.6% employees from the nuclear family.

Education: With respect to the educational status, 52.8% of the respondents had secure Graduation, 27.7% of the respondents were post graduation, and 19.6% of them were below graduation.

Designation: It is evident from table 3, the majority of the respondents working as a Middle level 60.8%, 28.3% of the respondents ware Lower level, 10.9% of the respondents were Top level Employee.

Income for Month: As it can be seen from table 3, the income of the respondents in the case of 64.9% of the respondents ranged from Rs. 25,001-30,000; while 18.2% reported to have a monthly income Rs.20,001- 25,000; 13.5% of the respondents reported monthly income below Rs. 20,000; 3.4% of the respondents reported monthly income Below Rs. 30,001

Working Hours: With regards to working hours, in general, have adopted 8 hours duty as per the banking regulation Act and rules. It is evident that from the table 3, 69.6% of employees working Up to 8 hours, followed with 26.4% of employees working 8-10 hours, 4% of employees working 10-12 hours in respected banks.

Working Experience: It was observed that majority of the employees 62.9% had more than 1-3 years experience, followed with 28.2% employees had 4-6 years experience, 6.7% employees reported had 7-9 years and 2.2% employees had above 10 years experience.

No. of Transfers from the Joining: It is evident that from table 3, the majority 51% of the employees had 0-2 times transfers from the joining, followed with 40.9% employees had 3-5 times transfer,6.7% of employees had 6-8 times transfer and 1.3% of employees had more than 8 time transfer from respected banks.

Type of Bank: As it can be seen from the table 3, 50.0% of employees from the public bank & 50.0% of the employees from the private bank.

Reliability Test of Job Stress Dimensions:

It is evident that from the table 4, overall Cronbach’s alpha of dimension like job stress, coping strategies, job satisfaction and job performance had .769, .879, .732 and .724. This results showed that all the 65 items were reliable and valid to measure the opinion of employees towards respected dimension.

Pearson Chi-Square: A Pearson’s correlation is used when there are two quantitative variables. The possible research hypotheses are that there is a positive linear relationship between the variables, a negative linear relationship between the variables, or no linear relationship between the variables

• HO1: There is no a significant association between job stress and personal demographic factors.

Job stress and personal demographic factors: The response of the employees on the job stress obtained and obtainable in the table 5.

Interpretation: The chi-square statistics (Table 5) indicate that age, gender, marital status, education, designation, working hours, monthly income, experience and transfers are found to be statistically insignificant relationship with the employee opinion on the job stress in the selected public bank and private bank in the Hyderabad city; Whereas, remaining variables as listed in table 5 were found to be associated with the opinion employees on the job stress.

• HO2: There is no a significant association between job stress coping strategies and personal demographic factors.


Interpretation: it is evident from the table 6, showed that opinion of the on the coping strategies and adopted by the employees in order to overcome the stressful situation are presented in the above table. Te chi-square test indicates that the p-value is less than 0.05 in the case of all demographical factors. Therefore, it can be stated that there is a significant association between the coping strategies and respected demographical factors. The results showed that, the coping strategies are being influenced by all the independent variables and the differences in the personal and employeemenet profile.

• HO3: There is no a significant association between job stress and job performance.